Appendixes

Glossary

Asian ethnic group

People who identify with at least one Asian ethnicity (for example, Chinese, Indian, Korean) with or without other ethnicities.

Census usually resident population count

A count of all people who usually live in a given area, and are present in New Zealand, on a given census night. The census usually resident population count of New Zealand excludes visitors from overseas and excludes residents who are temporarily overseas on census night.

For a subnational area, this count excludes visitors from overseas and elsewhere in New Zealand (people who do not usually live in that area), but includes residents of that area who are temporarily elsewhere in New Zealand on census night (people who usually live in that area but are absent).

City

A territorial authority that is a distinct entity, is predominately urban in character, has a minimum population of 50,000, and is a major centre of activity within its parent region. Some territorial authorities are classified as cities for historical reasons. For example, Nelson is a city because of its cathedral.

District

A territorial authority that is neither wholly urban nor wholly rural and that is under the jurisdiction of a district council.

Estimated resident population

An estimate of all people who usually live in a given area at a given date. The estimated resident population of New Zealand includes all residents present in New Zealand and counted by the census (census usually resident population count), residents who are temporarily overseas (who are not included in the census), and an adjustment for residents missed or counted more than once by the census (net census undercount). Visitors from overseas are excluded.

For a subnational area, the estimate excludes visitors from elsewhere in New Zealand (people who do not usually live in that area), but includes residents of that area who are temporarily elsewhere on census night (people who usually live in that area but are absent).

The estimated resident population at a given date after census includes births, deaths and net migration (arrivals less departures) of residents during the period between census night and the given date.

National population estimates are produced quarterly (reference dates at 31 March, 30 June, 30 September and 31 December) from 1991 and subnational population estimates are produced annually (reference date at 30 June) from 1996.

Ethnicity

An ethnic group is made up of people who have some or all of the following characteristics:

  • a common proper name
  • one or more elements of common culture that need not be specified, but may include religion, customs or language
  • unique community of interests, feelings and actions
  • a shared sense of common origins or ancestry
  • a common geographic origin.

Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group. People can identify with an ethnicity even though they may not be descended from ancestors with that ethnicity. Conversely, people may choose to not identify with an ethnicity even though they are descended from ancestors with that ethnicity.

European ethnic group

People who identify with at least one European ethnicity (for example, New Zealand European, English, Dutch) with or without other ethnicities.

Home ownership

Refers to people who stated on their census form that they owned or partly owned the dwelling in which they usually lived.

Internal migration

The movement of people within the boundaries of a nation or region.

Main urban area

See Urban area.

Minor urban area

See Urban area.

Māori ethnic group

People who identify with Mäori ethnicity with or without other ethnicities.

Middle Eastern, Latin American and African (MELAA) ethnic grouping

People who identify with at least one Middle Eastern, Latin American or African ethnicity (for example Somali, Peruvian Arab) with or without other ethnicities. Before 2006, these ethnicities were coded to the ‘Other’ ethnic group.

Migration

The movement of people from one area to another. When the movement is between countries it is called international or external migration; when it is within a country it is called internal migration.

The international travel and migration statistics included in this publication were compiled from individual migration forms filled in by passengers arriving in and departing New Zealand, and forwarded to Statistics NZ by the New Zealand Customs Service.

New Zealand

This refers to geographic New Zealand, that is, the North Island, South Island and adjacent islands. People on board ships in New Zealand ports or territorial waters are included in regional council area, North and South Island, and New Zealand populations, but not in those of smaller administrative or statistical units.

Occupation

This refers to a set of jobs that require the performance of similar or identical tasks.
This publication uses the highest level of the New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1999. Find out more information about this variable.

Other ethnic group

Refers to people who included among their ethnicities one or more ethnicities included in the Other grouping of ethnicities. People may identify with ethnicities in more than one ethnic grouping. The vast majority of people in this grouping are those who gave New Zealander as their only, or one of their, responses.

Pacific peoples ethnic group

People who identify with at least one Pacific ethnicity (for example, Samoan, Tongan, Fijian) with or without other ethnicities.

Regional council area (region)

The Local Government Commission established regional councils in 1989. Regional council areas cover every territorial authority in New Zealand with the exception of the Chatham Islands Territory. The geographical boundaries of regions conform as far as possible to one or more water catchments. In determining regions, consideration was also given to regional communities of interest, natural resource management, land use planning, and environmental matters.

There are 16 regions in New Zealand. Twelve of these regions are administered by regional councils while the Gisborne, Tasman, Nelson and Marlborough Regions are administered by their respective district or city councils. The boundaries of territorial authorities are generally the same as regional council boundaries, although there are eight instances where territorial boundaries straddle regional boundaries.

Rural area

The rural areas of New Zealand are those not defined as urban. They include:

  • Rural centres – centres with populations of 300 to 999 in a reasonably compact area which service their surrounding rural areas.
  • Rural and other areas – Area units where they are not included in main, secondary or minor urban areas, and inlets, islands, inland waters, and oceanic waters that are outside urban areas. The population on shipboard is excluded from the urban-rural classification.

Secondary urban area

See Urban area.

Territorial authority

The smallest local government entities, created by the local government reorganisation that took effect on 1 November 1989. Based on 2006 boundaries, there are 16 cities, 56 districts and one territory. Banks Peninsula District became part of Christchurch City on 6 March 2006.

Territorial authority boundaries are defined by aggregations of area units. When defining the boundaries of territorial authorities, the Local Government Commission placed considerable weight on the 'community of interest'.

Urban area

Non-administrative areas with urban characteristics and a high to moderate concentration of population. The classification of urban areas was revised for the 1991 Census of Population and Dwellings into three parts – main, secondary and minor urban areas:

  • Main urban areas – centres with populations of 30,000 or more. There are currently 16 main urban areas (12 in the North Island and four in the South). Auckland, Wellington, Hamilton, Napier-Hastings are further subdivided into zones.
  • Secondary urban areas – centres with populations between 10,000 and 29,999. There are currently 14 secondary urban areas.
  • Minor urban areas – centres with populations of 1,000 or more not already classified as urban (that is, not falling within a main or secondary urban area). There are currently 99 minor urban areas and, together with the above two categories, they constitute the urban population of New Zealand.
  • Urban areas are currently defined on the basis of the 1996 Census usually resident population count. As a result, Greymouth is still classified as a secondary urban area, even though the 2001 Census usually resident population count, and the estimated resident populations at 30 June 2001–2005, fall below 10,000.

For more definitions, please see Statistics New Zealand glossary of common terms.