Who benefits more from migration – men or women? Using data from the Survey of Dynamics and Motivations for Migration we found that men and women showed similar levels of satisfaction with their new living conditions. Although similar proportions of men and women said their income had changed since they moved, more men related this change to their move. A higher proportion of men moved for better employment and career opportunities, and this reason was associated with an income rise.
Satisfaction with living conditions
All movers were asked to compare their previous and current living conditions. Men and women showed similar levels of satisfaction to each other across all living conditions. A slightly higher proportion of men rated their employment opportunities as better or much better than before they moved. This excluded those who were not seeking employment. More than 80 percent of men and women were satisfied or very satisfied with their overall living conditions.
Change in personal income
The pattern of income change was similar for men and women. More than half of the movers stated that their income had stayed about the same since they moved. Slightly more men than women said their income had increased since moving. This suggests that men and women experience quite similar changes in their personal income after moving.
A comparison by age shows that the similarities between men and women were shared across most age groups. The graph above shows a comparison of men and women in two broad age groups. The differences were more evident in the 20–39 year age group, where 35 percent of men stated their income had increased, while only 28 percent of women said the same.
Income change related to move
We asked movers who said their income changed whether this was related to their move. Slightly more men who moved within New Zealand related the income rise to their move (35 percent) than did women (32 percent). Among movers from overseas, 81 percent of men and 74 percent of women whose income had increased said this was related to their move. See the downloadable tables at the end of this page for more details.
Note that data for the 70+ age group was not available due to a small number of responses.
More young men were likely to relate their income change (either increase or decrease) to their move than women (67 percent of men aged 15–19 years, compared with 50 percent of women in the same age group). This difference was also seen in male movers aged 20–29 years, and 50–59 years. Men and women whose income had increased and decreased showed the same pattern of difference.
Reasons for moving
We analysed the data to see if income changes were affected by individuals' reasons for moving. A higher proportion of men gave employment reasons for moving away from their previous location (13 percent) than did women (10 percent). See the downloadable tables at the end of this page for more details. The following graphs show the distribution of income change by the reasons people gave for moving away from their previous location, and by reasons for moving to their current location.
Individuals who gave employment reasons for moving were more likely to say their income had increased than people who moved for different reasons. The employment category includes reasons such as:
- moved to live closer to workplace
- moved for better employment/career/business opportunities and
- moved to start a new job.
It follows that people who moved for better employment-related opportunities and to begin a new job would have a higher personal income than before.
People who moved for education reasons were least likely to have experienced an income rise, and were more likely to say their income had fallen since they moved than people who gave other reasons.
For the group of men whose income had increased, this was more likely to be because they moved, and linked to their reasons for migrating. A higher proportion of men moved for better employment and career opportunities, and this was often followed by an income increase.
The data used comes from the Survey of Dynamics and Motivations for Migration in New Zealand: March 2007 quarter.
More details about the classification system used can be found on the more information and technical notes pages of the Survey of Dynamics and Motivations for Migration in New Zealand: March 2007 quarter.
Please refer to Glossary.
This page is part of a web-based analytical report by Statistics New Zealand. The report includes more than 10 topics. To see the other topics, go to the Internal Migration report introduction page.
The following tables can be downloaded from the Statistics New Zealand website in Excel format. If you do not have access to Excel, you may use the Excel file viewer to view, print and export the contents of the file.
1. Male movers' level of satisfaction at current location
2. Female movers' level of satisfaction at current location
3.01. Income change after move, by sex
3.02. Income change after move, by age, male movers
3.03. Income change after move, by age, female movers
4.01. Increase in income as a result of moving, by sex
4.02. Decrease in income as a result of moving, by sex
5.01. Movers by change in income as a result of moving, by age, male movers
5.02. Movers by change in income as a result of moving, by age, female movers
6.01. Main reason for moving from previous location, by sex
6.02. Income change for movers, by main reason for moving from previous location
6.03. Income change for movers, by main reason for moving to current location