Births data from 1991 are based on births registered in New Zealand to mothers resident in New Zealand by date of registration. Before 1991, births data are based on births registered in New Zealand to mothers resident in New Zealand and mothers visiting from overseas by date of registration. Births data exclude late registrations under section 16 of the Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Relationships Registration Act 1995. Section 16 births are those that were not registered in the ordinary way at the time the birth occurred.
The Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Relationships Registration Act 1995, which took effect from 1 September 1995, redefined a stillbirth as a child who is born dead and weighs 400g or more or is born dead after the 20th week of gestation. Before the new Act, a stillbirth was defined as a child born dead after 28 weeks of gestation. This change in definition means that stillbirths from September 1995 onwards are not directly comparable with earlier years.
Deaths data from 1991 onwards are based on deaths registered in New Zealand of New Zealand residents by date of registration. Before 1991, deaths data are based on deaths registered in New Zealand of New Zealand residents and people visiting from overseas by date of registration.
Replacement level fertility
Replacement level fertility is the average number of children a woman needs to have to produce one daughter who survives to childbearing age. Replacement level fertility is also described as the total fertility rate required for the population to replace itself in the long term, without migration.
The internationally accepted replacement level is 2.1 births per woman. Replacement level fertility allows for child mortality (children who die before reaching reproductive age) and the birth of more boys than girls. On average, throughout the world, 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. The actual replacement level will vary slightly from country to country, depending on child mortality rates. In countries with high child mortality, the total fertility rate will need to be higher than 2.1 births per woman to achieve replacement level.
Total fertility rate
The total fertility rate is the average number of live births that a woman would have during her life if she experienced the age-specific fertility rates of a given period (usually a year). It excludes the effect of mortality.
Children of this relationship
The birth registration forms ask whether there are any other children of this relationship. However, it is possible that children from previous relationships are included. This question does not produce an accurate measure of all live births to a woman (needed for accurate measures of birth parity). For privacy reasons it is deemed unacceptable to ask women about children outside their current relationship.
Standardised death rates
The overall death rate that would have prevailed in a standard population if it had experienced the age-specific (usually age-and-sex-specific) death rates of the population or area being studied. In this Hot Off The Press, the age and sex distribution of the mean estimated population for the year ended 31 December 1961 is used to derive standardised death rates.
A life table provides a detailed description of the mortality experience prevailing in a population during a given period. It comprises an array of measures, including probabilities of death, probabilities of survival and life expectancies at various ages. Details, including life tables for subnational areas, and the life tables methodology are included in the New Zealand Life Tables: 2005–2007 report, released in May 2009.
Demographic rates from 1991 onwards are calculated using the mean estimated resident population. Rates before 1991 are calculated using the mean estimated de facto population.
Birth and death figures contained in the tables attached to this release are unrounded. All other figures have been rounded. This may result in a total differing slightly from the sum of its components. Derived figures (for example percentage annual increase) have been calculated using unrounded data.
For more information, follow the link from the 'Technical notes' of this release on the Statistics NZ website.
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