Year of Arrival/Years Since Arrival in New Zealand

Glossary and references


Duration of residence

Duration of residence is the length of time in completed years, excluding intervening absences, that a respondent who was born outside of New Zealand has lived in New Zealand as a permanent or long–term resident.

Long–term absence

A long–term absence refers to an absence of one year or more.

Long–term resident

A long–term resident is a person who arrives in New Zealand to live for twelve months or more.

Permanent resident

A permanent resident is a person who arrives in New Zealand with the intention to settle permanently.

Short–term resident

A short–term resident is a person who arrives in New Zealand to stay for less than twelve months.

Temporary absence (Migration statistics)

For the purposes of Migration Statistics, a temporary absence refers to any absence of less than one year.

Residual categories

Don’t know

Use of this category is discretionary. The use of a category capturing don't know responses is most applicable to household surveys where don't know may be a legitimate response to certain questions.

Refused to answer

This category is only used when it is known that the respondent has purposefully chosen not to respond to the question. Use of this residual category in processing is optional. Its use is most applicable in face–to–face or telephone interviews, but may be used in self–completed questionnaires if the respondent has clearly indicated they refuse or object to answering the question.

Response unidentifiable

This category is only used when there is a response given, but:

  1. the response is illegible, or
  2. it is unclear what the meaning or intent of the response is – this most commonly occurs when the response being classified contains insufficient detail, is ambiguous or is vague, or
  3. the response is contradictory eg, both the yes and no tick boxes have been ticked, or
  4. the response is clear and seemingly within the scope of the classification but can not be coded because no suitable option (particularly other residual category options such as 'not elsewhere classified' or 'not further defined') exists in the classification or codefile.

Response outside scope

This category is used for responses that are positively identified (ie the meaning and the intent are clear) but which clearly fall outside the scope of the classification/topic as defined in the standard.

Not stated

This category is only used where a respondent has not given any response to the question asked, ie it is solely for non–response.


Australian Bureau of Statistics (1994). Directory of Concepts and Standards for Social, Labour and Demographic Statistics, Canberra.

Department of Statistics (1991). 1991 Census of Population and Dwellings: Concepts, Definitions and Classifications, Wellington.

Statistics New Zealand (1993). 1996 Census of Population and Dwellings: Preliminary Views on Content, Wellington.