## Description

Make biased dice. Weight (load) a dice to favour one of the six numbers. For example, load the number six so that it is three times more likely to come up than any other face (probability 4/9). Test ideas about bias by rolling a loaded dice. Look at demonstrations of the mathematical principles of bias. Compare the shape of theoretical data distributions with experimental results. This learning object is one in a series of 11 objects. Three objects in the series are also packaged as a combined learning object.

## Key learning objectives

• Students collect and handle data about random events to test conjectures about variation and bias.
• Students interpret frequency graphs to compare experimental results with theoretical probabilities.
• Students compare the shape of theoretical and experimentally derived data distributions in situations where there is bias.
• Students relate the shape of data distributions to statements about sample variation, sample size, and bias.

## Educational value

• Students use dice to explore relationships between bias, proportions, sample size, random variation, and statistical distributions.
• Students observe that conclusions based on small sample sizes can be wrong due to random variation.
• Includes scenarios involving a range of even and uneven distributions.
• On-screen tutorials introduce students to mathematical ideas underpinning bias in even and uneven distributions.
• Experimental results are automatically collated and displayed as frequency graphs.

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