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Dice duels: find the bias


Test dice to see if they have been weighted (loaded) to favour one of the six numbers. Explore how many rolls are needed for you to be reasonably sure of a conclusion. Compare the shape of theoretical data distributions with experimental results. This learning object is one in a series of 11 objects.

Key learning objectives

  • Students collect and handle data about random events to test conjectures about variation and bias.
  • Students interpret frequency graphs to compare experimental results with theoretical probabilities.
  • Students compare the shape of theoretical and experimentally derived data distributions in situations where there is bias.
  • Students relate the shape of data distributions to statements about sample variation, sample size, and bias.

Educational value

  • Provides scenarios for students to use dice as a means to explore relationships between bias, proportions, sample size, random variation, and even statistical distributions.
  • Demonstrates that conclusions based on small sample sizes can be incorrect due to random variation.
  • Automatically collates experimental results and displays them as frequency graphs.