Altay, N & Green, WG (2006). Interfaces with other disciplines: OR/MS research in disaster operations management. European Journal of Operational Research, 175(1), 475–493. Available from www.sciencedirect.com.
This article reviews the literature on operational disaster research and management. It focuses on directions in disaster work and the analysis of social problems related to disasters and emergency management. The appendix lists disaster-related journals, research centres, organisations, and northern hemisphere and Latin American databases.
Bengtsson, L, Xin, X, Garfield, R, Thorson, A, & Von Schreeb, J (2010). Internal population displacements in Haiti: Preliminary analysis of movement patterns of Digicel mobile phones. Update: 31 August 2010. Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet and Columbia University. Available from http://reliefweb.int.
This report analyses data on the use of Digicel mobile phones before and after the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, covering movements from 1 December 2009 to 18 June 2010. It finds large inflows of phones to Port-au-Prince from February to early May, and slower inflows from May to 18 June, with parallel outflows from departments outside Port-au-Prince. At 18 June, there were 6.6 percent fewer mobile phones in Port-au-Prince and an estimated 250,000 Port-au-Prince residents had still not returned to the city. There was no clear evidence for increased movement of previous non-residents into the city post-earthquake.
Chang, S & Miles SB (2011). Resilient community recovery: Improving recovery through comprehensive modelling. Available from www.mceer.buffalo.edu.
This paper reports on the initial stages in the development of a comprehensive urban community recovery model and spatial decision support system that reflect the relationship between sectors (households, businesses, and lifeline infrastructure), geographical levels and recovery processes over time.
Clayton, RL & Spletzer, JR (2006). Worker mobility before and after Hurricane Katrina. Monthly Labor Review, August 2006, 129(8), 11–21. Available from http://www.bls.gov.
This article looks at the labour market effects of Hurricane Katrina using wage records from Texas and Louisiana, where many evacuees ended up, enhanced by data from the US Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. It presents findings that show that those who quickly found jobs in Texas experienced a substantial decline in short-term earnings.
Corsellis, T & Vitale, A (2005). Transitional Settlement: Displaced populations. Oxford: Oxfam GB and University of Cambridge. Available from www.sheltercentre.org.
This paper provides information for humanitarian relief coordinators and specialists concerned with transitional settlements for refugees/evacuees. It discusses the process and implementation of transitional settlement options and has an international humanitarian focus, covering labour and construction options, and transitional camps and communities.
Czajkowski, J & Kennedy, E (2010). Fatal tradeoff? Toward a better understanding of the cost of not evacuating from a hurricane in landfall counties. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 121–149. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This article models coastal hurricane fatalities from 1970 to 2007. The authors feel the apparent decline in fatalities might be overstated, with a bias according to the level of evacuation from a county. They found a higher than expected fatality count for more frequently affected countries, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico.
Davies, PS & Hemmeter, J (2010). Supplementary security income recipients affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: an analysis of two years of administrative data. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 87–120. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This study finds that Supplementary Security Income (SSI) recipients (elderly and disabled with low income and asset levels) from areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were more likely than recipients in non-affected areas to: leave the programme (there was a large number of deaths among those from severely affected areas); to have more volatile participation patterns; and to leave the area within two years.
Dolfman, ML, Wasser,SF, & Skelly, K (2006). Structural changes in Manhattan’s post 9/11 economy. Monthly Labor Review, 129(10), 58–9. Available from www.bls.gov.
This article finds that 9/11 has led to a diminution in importance of Manhattan’s global economy, and its role as a wage generator increase.
Donner, W & Rodriguez, H. (2008). Population composition, migration and inequality: The influence of demographic changes on disaster risk and vulnerability. Social Forces, 87(12), 1089–1114. Available from http://muse.jhu.edu/search.
Donner and Rodriguez examine the multidimensional nature of and effects of demographic and socioeconomic factors on vulnerability to disasters. They review vulnerability literature around socio-economic status, gender, and race. The article underlines the multidimensional nature of vulnerability. Population growth, composition, and distribution are identified as the main forces in exposure to potential threat and vulnerability.
Elliott, DB (August, 2009). Understanding changes in families and households pre- and post- Katrina. Paper presented at the 2009 Sociological Association Meeting, San Francisco. Available from http://www.census.gov/.
This paper examines the population of New Orleans one year after Hurricane Katrina. Returnees were found to be likely to have more resources, employment, or employment opportunities; to be homeowners, and older without school-aged children, or single female-headed families; and to have race and family structure differences. Poverty was a predictor of the non-return of adults, but not of children.
Erikson, K & Peek, L (2009). Hurricane Katrina research bibliography. New York: Social Science Research Council, Task Force on Katrina and Rebuilding the Gulf Coast. Available from http://katrinaresearchhub.ssrc.org.
This large bibliography includes reports, journal articles, book chapters, and books on the human effects of Hurricane Katrina. References are listed under the subject areas: children and schools; displaced persons; economic effects and employment; elderly; emergency preparedness and response; environmental effects; evacuation; gender; health and health care; housing; media; post-disaster recovery; race and class; and research methods. Also included are books, special issues of scholarly journals, documentary films, and websites dedicated to Hurricane Katrina. The bibliography was published in October 2010. For more recent post-Katrina information, see http://www.gnocdc.org/.
Finch, C, Emrich, CT, & Cutter, SL (2010). Disaster disparities and differential recovery in New Orleans. Population and Environment, 31(4). 179–202. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This article discusses socio-demographic disparities in New Orleans affecting social vulnerability to disasters like Katrina using mail delivery patterns. It finds that: private resources and government programmes help those in the high and low groups; recovery is lagging for neighbourhoods in the mid-range of vulnerability; and “the new residential landscape [in New Orleans] portends a future where the geography of recovery is based on who can afford it”, not necessarily those who are most affected.
Fothergill, A & Peek, LA (2004). Poverty and disasters in the United States: A review of recent sociological findings. Natural Hazards, 32(1), 89-110. Available from http://wsnet.colostate.edu/CWIS584/Lori_Peek/home.aspx.
This article reviews and synthesises literature on poverty and disasters from research on affected United States populations over twenty years. Findings are organised under eight headings: risk perception, preparedness behaviour, warning communication and response, physical impacts, psychological impacts, emergency response, recovery, and reconstruction.
Frey, WH & Singer, A (2010).Demographic dynamics and natural disasters: Learning from Katrina and Rita. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 1–2. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This is an editorial for a special issue of Population and Environment looking at research from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. It offers a brief introduction to each of the seven papers in the issue.
Frey, WH, Singer, A, & Park, D (2007). Resettling New Orleans: The first full picture from the census. Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program report. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Available from http://www.brookings.edu/.
Using the 2006 American Community Survey, Census Bureau estimates, and Inland Revenue Service migration data, this report examines who lived in New Orleans and its region after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, what types of residents moved in, stayed, or remained displaced one year after the hurricanes.
Grievink, L et al (2006). The importance of estimating selection bias on prevalence estimates shortly after a disaster. Annals of Epidemiology, 16(10), 782–788. Available from www.annalsofepidemiology.org/.
This article discusses selective participation and its effects on prevalence estimates in a health survey of affected residents three weeks after a man-made disaster in the Netherlands in 2000. The participation rate was not affected by relocation, and participants consulted their GP more than non-participants.
Groen, JA & Polivka, AE (2009). Going home after Hurricane Katrina: Determinants of return migration and changes in affected areas. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS Working Paper No.428. Available from http://www.bls.gov.
This working paper examines the decision of Katrina evacuees to return home and how the composition of the Katrina-affected region changed over time. After the floods there were an increased percentage of older residents, a decreased percentage with low incomes and education, and an increased percentage with high incomes and education. This has affected the ethnic composition of the Louisiana population.
Gutmann, M & Field, V (2010). Katrina in historical context: Environment and migration in the U.S. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 3–19. Available from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.
This article identifies four types of environmental influence on migration in the United States: environmental calamities (including earthquakes and hurricanes), environmental hardships (including from droughts), environmental amenities (including warmth, sunshine, water and mountains), and environmental barriers and their management (including heat, flood control, drainage, irrigation). Hurricane Katrina is identified as an environmental calamity, a relatively rare and localised historical event. The authors argue that focus on environmental calamities distracts interest from other kinds of environmental impact, whose effect on migration may have been stronger and more persistent, though less dramatic.
Harding, A (Ed.) (2010). Shaken Up: Proceedings of a workshop on recovery following the Gisborne earthquake, 7 December 2009, Wellington. Available from http://www.gdc.govt.nz.
These workshop proceedings include papers on recovery as a holistic concept, the impact that the magnitude 6.8 earthquake that struck Gisborne in 2007 had on buildings and infrastructure, travel patterns post-earthquake, business recovery, and the state and private funding of repairs. A final paper comparing the 2007 Gisborne earthquake with an earthquake in Newcastle in 1989 is followed by transcribed notes from a panel discussion.
Hearn Morrow, B (1999). Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Disasters 23(1), 1–18. Available from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/.
This article discusses examples from the United States including Hurricane Andrew, to show how some populations are at greater risk throughout disaster response processes than others. It argues for the importance of mapping, tracking, and involving such communities in all levels of planning and response.
Hori, M, Schafer, M & Bowman, D (2009). Displacement dynamics in Southern Louisiana after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Population Research and Policy Review, 28(1), 45–65. Available from http://econpapers.repec.org/article.
This article describes displacement dynamics approximately one year on from hurricanes, drawing on data from the 2006 Louisiana Health and Population Survey (LHPS) to more fully describe patterns of movement in southern Louisiana, and to provide information on dispersion and health characteristics. The article identifies and describes three dimensions of displacement dynamics: in-migration, out-migration, and intra-parish movements, adding correctives to the broader ‘‘net effects’’ commonly cited in media reports, which understate displacement. Information is provided on sampling and questions asked to survey displacement (if people moved, where they moved from, and why).
Hunter, LM (1998). The association between environmental risk and internal migration flows. Population and Environment, 19(3), 247–277. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This article argues that counties with environmental risks do not lose residents at greater rates than others, but there are relatively fewer new residents.
Jervis, R (April 2008). New Orleans’ population may have hit plateau. USA Today. Available from www.usatoday.com.
A newspaper article that cites a Brookings Institution report that found the population of New Orleans had grown 3 percent from 2007 to 2008 compared with 19 percent from 2006 to 2007, and that evacuees continue to return to New Orleans but at slower rate than immediately after the August 2005 hurricane. Rents were 46 percent higher than pre-Katrina.
Koerber, K (November, 2006). Migration patterns and mover characteristics from the 2005 ACS Gulf Coast area special products. Paper presented at the Southern Demographic Association Conference, Durham, North Carolina. Available from www.census.gov/newsroom/emergencies.
This conference paper compares two sets of estimates, for the eight months before and four months after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, to determine the migration patterns of displaced people.
Lamb, S (2005). Demand for travel in the Wellington region following a major earthquake 6/10/2005 Opus International Consultants paper. Available from www.opus.co.nz/frstweb/nh/publications.htm.
This paper models transport patterns following a hypothetical daytime earthquake in Wellington. Travel patterns and demand for travel are predicted and analysed in the context of two earthquake scenarios.
Liu, A & Plyer, A (principal authors) (2010). The New Orleans index at five: Measuring Greater New Orleans’ progress toward prosperity. New Orleans: Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program and Greater New Orleans Community Data Center. Available from http://www.gnocdc.org/.
This 48-page report is the first of a planned series measuring progress and prosperity in the greater New Orleans area post-Hurricane Katrina. It includes seven essays and an examination of progress from 2004 to 2009 using 20 indicators covering economic growth, inclusion, quality of life, and sustainability, for the federally-defined 7-parish metropolitan statistical area (MSA) of New Orleans. Findings are compared with earlier trends back to 1980.
National Academy of Science, National Research Council’s Committee on the Effective Use of Data (2007). Tools and methods for estimating populations at risk from natural disasters and complex humanitarian crises. Washington DC: National Academies Press. Available from http://www.nap.edu/.
This book discusses the importance of censuses and of linking population data to location, and using GIS and GPS to geographically reference populations’ locations.
Plyer, A (2011). Population loss and vacant housing in New Orleans neighbourhoods. (Greater New Orleans Community Data Center report.) New Orleans: Greater New Orleans Community Data Center. Available from www.gnocdc.org.
This brief article examines 2010 census data for New Orleans’ neighbourhoods. It includes data on total population, housing units, and vacant housing units. Analysis of the 2010 Census data shows that the city’s population shrank by over 140,000 people from 2000, leaving thousands of abandoned houses and other buildings. However, the population loss began before Katrina and most neighbourhoods lost population whether or not they flooded in 2005.
Plyer, A, Ortiz, E & Pettit, K (2010). Post-Katrina commuter patterns based on 2008 Local Employment Dynamics data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Available from www.gnocdc.org.
This report uses data from a new set of U.S. Census data on commuter patterns, local job location data, and worker residence data to show where people live compared with where they work post-Katrina, by three wage levels.
Sastry, N (2009). Displaced New Orleans residents in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Results from a pilot study. Population Studies Center Research Report 08-640, June 2008. Michigan: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. Available from http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs.
In response to a lack of information about people’s whereabouts, well-being, and plans to settle elsewhere or return, a Displaced New Orleans Residents Pilot Study (DNORPS) was developed to provide preliminary information and to assess the feasibility of collecting representative data on this population. The pilot study was based on a probability sample of pre- Katrina dwellings in New Orleans approximately one year after Hurricane Katrina. The report discusses the return to New Orleans of displaced residents, provides an overview of current data sources for studying the demographic effects of Hurricane Katrina, and describes the design and implementation of DNORPS, including the sampling plan, questionnaire, fieldwork operations, and fieldwork results.
Sharpe, M (2011, 26 March). What Napier can teach Christchurch about earthquake recovery. The Dominion Post. Available from www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post.
A newspaper article that highlights lessons learnt from the 1931 earthquake in Napier, New Zealand
Smith, K. & Walton, D. (2009). Returning to work after the big one: Predicting staff priorities in a dual role agency. International Journal of Emergency Management, 6(2), 162–178. Available from www.inderscience.com.
This article examines the behaviours and decisions about whether to return to work of 190 staff in a local government agency after a hypothetical 6.8 magnitude quake in Wellington. Participant-completed questionnaires, Social Network Analysis (SNA), and multidimensional scaling were used to model post-earthquake behaviour. Overall, staff members’ level of responsibility in the organisation affected return the most, and dependents had less influence on behaviours than expected. Many were motivated to return to work for colleagues and community rather than economic or organisational reasons.
Smith, SK and McCarty, C (1996). Demographic Effects of Natural Disasters: A case study of Hurricane Andrew. Demography, 33(2), 265–275. Available from www.springerlink.com.
Using information collected through sample surveys and from other data sources, the paper investigates: the extent of housing damage from Hurricane Andrew in Dade County, Florida; the number of people forced out of their homes; where they went; how long they stayed; and whether they returned to their pre-hurricane residences. The paper outlines the data collection by Red Cross, raises concerns about the undercounting of damage to properties, and mentions other data sources such as satellite images, council (county) data and insurance claims that could be used to assess the extent of damage. The paper notes the absence of information on uninsured loss and occupancy rates. The paper also describes a post disaster telephone survey of permanent residents and its population limitations, and how the researchers canvassed neighbours about those who have left an area. Just over half of neighbours knew where others had gone but 91 percent knew why (eg hurricane related). Temporary and long range effects of Hurricane Andrew on the population size are discussed.
Stringfield, JD (2010). Higher ground: An exploratory analysis of characteristics affecting returning populations after Hurricane Katrina. Population and Environment, 31(1-3), 43–63. Available from http://www.springerlink.com.
This article discusses New Orleans residents’ return to pre-disaster residences. A series of logistic regression analyses using United States Current Population Survey (CPS) data focussed on populations that were socially and environmentally vulnerable. The study found that Black/African Americans and poor (less economically viable and hence more vulnerable) populations were less likely to return to their pre-disaster residences. A large number of Hispanics settled in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina, but this influx of Hispanics included large number of non-natives rather than returnees.
Sunseri, S (2005). Review of literature on response behaviours in overseas disaster events. Wellington: Opus International Consultants Limited. Available from http://www.opus.co.nz/frstweb/nh/publications.htm.
This report reviews the literature on overseas behavioural responses, looking at research and literature on general approaches to disaster response, and human response behaviours, during and after natural disasters. There is particular focus on transport after a natural disaster and recovery, resilience, and planning.
Swanson, DA (2009). Hurricane Katrina: A case study of its impacts on medical service providers and their client populations. The Open Demographic Journal, 2, 8–17. Available from http://www.benthamscience.com/open/todemoj/index.htm.
This is a case study of the demographic effects of Hurricane Katrina on medical providers in two medical facilities in the relief and recovery/rehabilitation phases of a disaster. The study found that there was a substantial demographic impact and an adverse impact on the client base of both medical facilities, suggesting impacts on medical care providers and their ability to continue business that went beyond physical damage. The paper recommends that “recovery” and “business continuation” plans need to include estimates of demographic impacts on client populations as well as physical damage recovery.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (nd). Effects of Hurricane Katrina on BLS employment and unemployment data collection and estimation. Available from www.bls.gov/katrina.
This webpage outlines the effects of Hurricane Katrina on the Current Employment Statistics Survey, Current Population Survey, Local Area Unemployment Statistics, and Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages; and the procedures used for estimations and collections post-Katrina.
U.S. Census Bureau (nd). Special population estimates for impacted counties in the Gulf Coast area. Available from www.census.gov/newsroom/emergencies.
Following Hurricanes Katrina (Aug 2005) and Rita (Sept 2005), the U.S. Census Bureau produced a special set of population estimates that employed a new methodology for estimating subnational migration by making use of change of address data from the U.S. Postal Service. These estimates were calculated as at a non-standard reference date (1 Jan 2006), and were only produced for areas affected by the hurricanes. Following the special set of estimates the Bureau also produced subnational pop estimates at 1 July 2006, and made further use of the U.S. Postal Service's change of address data. This second set of estimates was evaluated by Velkoff, Takeuchi, & Johnson (2008) in Evaluation of the Census Bureau's Vintage 2006 Population Estimates for Counties Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
University of Texas Austin, Center for Social Work Research (2006). Katrina evacuees in Austin, Texas: Analysis of needs assessment data. Final report. Austin: Center for Social Work Research, University of Texas. Available from www.utexas.edu.
This study investigated the population of evacuees in Austin and their needs, including employment and job training, benefits and other assistance, physical and mental health, child care and schooling, and transportation. The report also includes an analysis of what it would cost to meet these needs.
van der Veen, A (2004). Disasters and economic damage: Macro, meso and micro approaches. Disaster Prevention and Management, 13(4) (special issue), 274–279. Available from www.ebooks.com/ebooks/.
This introductory paper, a guest editorial, argues for a society-decided proactive policy to prevent disasters or at least minimise their impact. It introduces the papers in the special issue of the journal. This journal issue includes papers on the methodology of social accounting after a disaster and the economic costs a disaster can have. The paper also discusses economic modelling of cost concepts, risk management, and stochastic modelling for macro, meso, and micro approaches used by leading European and American economists.
World Health Organisation (1997). Earthquakes and people’s health: Vulnerability reduction, preparedness, rehabilitation. Proceedings of a WHO symposium, Kobe, 27–30 January, 1997. Kobe: WHO Centre for Health Development. Available from www.who.int.
The proceedings include a section on the consequences of earthquakes on people’s health, and within that a paper on rehabilitation of the elderly. The proceedings use the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake that hit Kobe in 1995 (killing 6,300, injuring 30,000 and leaving 300,000 homeless) as an example.
Zissimopoulos, J M & Karoly, LA (2010). Employment and self-employment in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Demography, 47(2), 345–67. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This paper uses data from the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) to examine short- and longer-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on the labour market outcomes of ‘prime age’ individuals in the most affected states and on evacuees. The paper discusses rates of labour force participation, employment, unemployment, and self-employment. Apart from Mississippi, employment and unemployment rates one year after the hurricane were similar to those at the end of 2003. This aggregate pattern of labour market shock and recovery masked differences among subgroups. Those evacuated from their residences, even temporarily, were a harder-hit group, even after controlling for differences in observable characteristics. The paper concludes that self-employments plays an important role in post-disaster labour market recovery, especially among non-returning evacuees.