Altay, N & Green, WG (2006). Interfaces with other disciplines: OR/MS research in disaster operations management. European Journal of Operational Research, 175, 475–493. Available from www.sciencedirect.com.
This article reviews the literature on operational disaster research and management. It focuses on directions in disaster work and the analysis of social problems related to disasters and emergency management. The appendix lists disaster-related journals, research centres, organisations, and northern hemisphere and Latin American databases.
Asghar, S, Alahakoon, D, & Chirilov, L (2006). A comprehensive conceptual model for disaster management. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, 20 July 2006. Available from http://jha.ac/about/.
This article discusses approaches to disaster management and proposes a comprehensive model including hazards assessment, risk management and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, monitoring and evaluation. It discusses the value of a cyber infrastructure, and computer and information technologies.
Barron Ausbrooks, CY, Barrett, EJ, & Martinez-Cosio, M (2009). Ethical issues in disaster research: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina. Population Research and Policy Review, 28(1), 93–106. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This article discusses the ethical responsibility of researchers to protect the rights of survivors while collecting and disseminating quality survey findings after a disaster. The discussion focuses on Hurricane Katrina.
Bartoszynski, R, Bühler, WJ, Chan, W, & Pearl, DK (1989). Population processes under the influence of disasters occurring independently of population size. Journal of Mathematical Biology 27(2), 167–178. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This article includes discussion about Markov branching processes. Birth and death processes as a result of a disaster are considered independently from the present population size. The main emphasis of this paper, however, is discussion about the random probability of extinction as a result of a natural disaster. A natural disaster’s distribution density satisfies an equation which can be solved numerically at least up to a multiplicative constant.
Bengtsson, L, Xin, X, Garfield, R, Thorson, A, & Von Schreeb, J (2010). Internal population displacements in Haiti: Preliminary analysis of movement patterns of Digicel mobile phones. Update: 31 August 2010. Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet and Columbia University. Available from http://reliefweb.int.
This report analyses data on the use of Digicel mobile phones before and after the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, covering movements from 1 December 2009 to 18 June 2010. It finds large inflows of phones to Port-au-Prince from February to early May, and slower inflows from May to 18 June, with parallel outflows from departments outside Port-au-Prince. At 18 June, there were 6.6 percent fewer mobile phones in Port-au-Prince and an estimated 250,000 Port-au-Prince residents had still not returned to the city. There was no clear evidence for increased movement of previous non-residents into the city post-earthquake.
Bostoen, K, et al (2007). Methods for health surveys in difficult settings: Charting progress, moving forward. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 4(13) (Special issue). Available from www.ete-online.com.
This commentary introduces a special issue of Emerging Themes in Epidemiology devoted to papers related to survey methods in settings affected by disasters.
Bostoen, K, Chalabi, Z, & Grais, R (2007). Optimisation of the T-Square sampling method to estimate population size. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 4(7). Available from www.ete-online.com.
This article discusses T-Square sampling to estimate population sizes in an emergency, and a two-step process to optimise the procedure to provide more timely and accurate measures of population for planning health interventions.
Brown, SP, Mason, SL, & Tiller, RB (2006). The effect of Hurricane Katrina on employment and unemployment. Monthly Labor Review, 129(10), 52–69. Available from www.bls.gov.
This article offers a brief overview of the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) programme and examines early statistics on the impacts of Hurricane Katrina, and how adjustments to imputation procedures and sample weights depressed employment levels in two states. The article describes the process of determining appropriate actions to take in order to measure unemployment in hurricane-affected areas and how these were implemented in the current study.
Bryan, T (2004). Population estimates. In JS Siegel and DA Swanson (Eds). (2004). The methods and materials of demography (2nd ed.), pp523–560. New York: Elsevier Academic Press.
This chapter contains a description of two methods (Component Method I and Component Method II) for estimating net migration for the population aged 0–64 years, using school enrolment data (see pp545–546). In brief, school rolls are used to derive net migration rates for the school age population. These rates are, in turn, used to derive net migration estimates for the population aged 0–64 years (through simple multiplication). Working steps for each method are outlined, as well as associated assumptions.
Cahoon, LS et al (2006). The current population survey response to Hurricane Katrina. Monthly Labor Review, 129(8), 40–51. Available from www.bls.gov.
This article offers an overview of the Bureau of Labor and Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey (CPS) and operational issues related to Hurricane Katrina. It includes “Katrina questions” added to the CPS to track evacuees’ movements and labour force participation.
Dantas, A & Dalziell, E (September, 2005). Opportunities, barriers and challenges for implementing electronic data and information sharing frameworks in organisational response to natural disasters. Paper presented at the Fifth Annual IIASA-DPRI Meeting Integrated disaster risk management: Innovations in science and policy, IAEC. Beijing. Available from www.iiasa.ac.at.
This paper looks at the implementing of electronic data and information sharing frameworks in organisations involved in response to natural disasters. It includes a New Zealand case study on the implementation of an electronic data and information sharing framework in a roading authority organisation. According to the findings presented in this paper, performance gains can be achieved if technology is employed according to an organisation’s needs.
Dantas, A, Seville, E, & Nicholson, A (2006). Information sharing during disasters: Can we do it better? Resilient Organisations Research Report 2006/02. Available from www.resorgs.org.nz.
This report summarises the New Zealand emergency management context and discusses the roles of the different agencies involved with state highway management. It looks at communication between response and recovery organisations in Matata following floods in that area in 2005, reviews how communication channels functioned, and outlines a framework that can be used to improve data and information sharing.
Dobson, J E, Bright, EA, Coleman, PR, Durfee, RC, & Worley, BA (2000). LandScan: A global population database for estimating population at risk. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 66(7), 849-857. Available from http://www.asprs.org/Publications/.
The LandScan global population project provides a worldwide population database (calculated in 1998) for estimating populations at risk of natural disasters; nuclear, chemical, and biological accidents; and terrorist attacks. The database matches satellite imagery with census counts based on probability coefficients related to road proximity, land cover, and night-time lights.
Economou, A & Fakinos, D (2008). Alternative approaches for the transient analysis of Markov chains with catastrophes. Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice, 2(2), 183–197. Available from http://journalstp.gracescientific.com.
A theoretical statistics paper, which presents and discusses various approaches for the transient analysis of a Markovian population process with total catastrophes, the pros and the cons of methodologies, and how they lead to different results.
Grais, R F et al. (2006). Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different methods. Disasters, 30(3), 364–376. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.
This article compares Quadrat method and T-Square method (both using GIS) to estimate population. The T-Square method is identified as offering a more accurate estimate but being harder to implement.
Grievink, L, van der Velden, PG, Yzermans, CJ, Rooda, J, & Stellato, R (2006). The importance of estimating selection bias on prevalence estimates shortly after a disaster. Annals of Epidemiology, 16(10), 782–788. Available from www.annalsofepidemiology.org/.
This article discusses selective participation and its effects on prevalence estimates in a health survey of affected residents three weeks after a man-made disaster in the Netherlands in 2000. The participation rate was not affected by relocation. Participants consulted their GP more than non-participants.
Harter, R, Petty, J, & Kelly, J (2006). Conducting surveys when disasters strike. American Sociological Association (ASA) Conference Proceedings 2006, 3113–3117. Available from www.amstat.org/sections/srms/proceedings.
This article provides an overview of the effects of disasters on surveys, illustrated with examples from the National Opinion Research Organisation’s experiences.
Henderson, T et al (2009). After a disaster: Lessons in survey method from Hurricane Katrina. Population Research and Policy Review, 28(1), 67–92. Available from http://econpapers.repec.org.
This article looks at the advantages and limitations of various post-disaster sampling strategies: census short-form enumeration; long-form sample surveying; and stratified random, convenience, and purposive sampling.
King, D (2002). Post disaster surveys: Experience and methodology. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 17(3), 39–47 Available from http://www.ema.gov.au/www/emaweb/emaweb.nsf/.
A 13-page article examining the research methods used in disaster studies in Australia. This article contains useful lists and information on post-disaster studies carried out by the Centre for Disaster Studies at James Cook University, Townsville and internationally, discussion of partners and research needs, main impacts and issues related to disasters, and a review of post-disaster study methodologies. The article concludes that: some studies were too isolated or specific, but most draw on standardised post-trauma or rapid appraisal methodology; longitudinal studies or returns a significant time after the event provide deeper understanding of the bigger picture effects than snapshots; and it is important that the research methodology is legitimate and replicable.
Leenbo, AJ, Bonneau, A, & O’Rourke, TD (2008). Integrative technologies in support of GIS-based post-disaster response. Natural Hazard Review, 9(2), 61–70. Available from http://ascelibrary.org/nho.
A technical paper that discusses the use of map server (MS) technology using remote sensing imagery and other data to draw together large amounts of data. The paper discusses the development of a central information portal, which, while it contains only limited (but critical) data collected at the disaster site, provides a useful resource for post-disaster responses.
Love, T (2011). Population movement after natural disasters: A literature review and assessment of Christchurch data. Sapere Research Group. Available from http://www.srgexpert.com/
This report provides a literature review and a critical review of data from previous natural disasters including Hurricane Andrew, the Kobe earthquake, and Hurricane Katrina, and an application of the findings to Christchurch after the 22 February 2011 earthquake.
McGonagle, K, Leissou, E, Beaule, A, & Stafford, F. (April, 2008). Tracking PSID families in the Gulf States of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, New Orleans. Available from http://paa2008.princeton.edu.
This conference paper describes the effectiveness of steps taken during the autumn of 2006 to locate the families residing in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina who were part of the longitudinal sample of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) in order to enhance the likelihood of that they could participate in the 2007 wave.
Okuyama, Y (November 2003). Economics of natural disasters: A critical review. Paper presented at the 50th North American Meeting, Regional Science Association International, Philadelphia, PA. Available from http://rri.wvu.edu/.
This paper argues that there has been little new theory on economics of disasters since pioneering work by Dacy and Kunreuther in The Economics of Natural Disasters (1969). The paper reviews and updates the 1969 theory, adding new studies and extending it to a regional context, and proposes directions which could be further researched.
Plyer, A, Bonaguro, J, & Hodges, K (2010). Using administrative data to estimate population displacement and resettlement following a catastrophic U.S. disaster. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 150–175. Available from www.springerlink.com.
This article reviews literature from demography and other disciplines to identify available administrative datasets that can form the basis of population estimates following a catastrophic event. The article concludes that the most appropriate data to estimate population in damaged United States counties vary by time from the disaster; initially, these will be disaster-specific data such as housing damage estimates and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) applicant counts. Later, these will be sample surveys and administrative data such as electric accounts, postal service active residences, and school enrolment data.
Richardson, T & Renner, R (2007). Geographic information systems supporting disaster response and recovery. Cityscape: a Journal of Policy Development and Research, 9(1), 189–216. Available from http://www.huduser.org/portal/periodicals/cityscape.html.
This article discusses the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to overlay the impacted disaster areas over existing data sources to estimate the severity of the disaster, match geographical boundaries, and determine whose resources might be required to facilitate long-term recovery. It discusses the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s use of GIS to estimate risk and identify damage to housing, the analysis needed for recovery decision-making and resourcing.
Smith, SK & McCarty, C (1996). Demographic effects of natural disasters: A case study of Hurricane Andrew. Demography, 33(2), 265–275. Available from www.springerlink.com.
Using information collected through sample surveys and from other data sources, the paper investigates: the extent of housing damage from Hurricane Andrew in Dade County, Florida; the number of people forced out of their homes; where they went; how long they stayed; and whether they returned to their pre-hurricane residences. The paper outlines the data collection by Red Cross, raises concerns about the undercounting of damage to properties, and mentions other data sources such as satellite images, council (county) data and insurance claims that could be used to assess the extent of damage. The paper notes the absence of information on uninsured loss and occupancy rates. The paper also describes a post disaster telephone survey of permanent residents and its population limitations, and how the researchers canvassed neighbours about those who have left an area. Just over half of neighbours knew where others had gone but 91 percent knew why (eg hurricane related). Temporary and long range effects of Hurricane Andrew on the population size are discussed.
Swanson, DA (2009). Hurricane Katrina: A case study of its impacts on medical service providers and their client populations. The Open Demographic Journal, 2, 8–17. Available from http://www.benthamscience.com/open/todemoj/index.htm.
This is a case study of the demographic effects of a large scale disaster – Hurricane Katrina – on medical providers in two medical facilities in the relief and recovery/rehabilitation phases of a disaster. The study found that there was a substantial demographic impact and adverse impact on the client base of both medical facilities, suggesting impacts on medical care providers and their ability to continue business beyond physical damage. The paper recommends that “recovery” and “business continuation” plans need to include estimates of demographic impacts on client populations as well as physical damage recovery.
Tang, Z (2008). A new approach in measuring local migration and population. Canadian Studies in Population, 35(1), 27–48. Available from http://www.canpopsoc.org/journal/.
This article describes a method for estimating net migration from school roll data. As part of the method, ratios are used to transform net migration estimates for the population aged 6–17 years into net migration estimates for other age groups. For example, the ratio used to derive estimates of net migration for the 25–44 year age group is obtained by dividing the national ever-married population aged 25–44 years by the population aged 6–17 years, at the time of the latest census.
U.S. Census Bureau (nd). Special population estimates for impacted counties in the Gulf Coast area. Available from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/emergencies.
Following Hurricanes Katrina (August 2005) and Rita (September 2005), the U.S. Census Bureau produced a special set of population estimates that employed a new methodology for estimating subnational migration by using change of address data from the U.S. Postal Service. These estimates were calculated as at 1 Jan 2006 (a non-standard reference date) and were only produced for areas affected by the hurricanes. Following the special set of estimates, the Bureau also produced subnational population estimates at 1 July 2006. These also used the U.S. Postal Service's change of address data. This second set of estimates was evaluated by Velkoff, Takeuchi, & Johnson (2008) in Evaluation of the Census Bureau's Vintage 2006 Population Estimates for Counties Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
van der Veen, A (2004). Disasters and economic damage: Macro, meso and micro approaches. Disaster Prevention and Management, 13(4) (special issue), 274–279. Available from http://www.ebooks.com/ebooks/.
This introductory paper, a guest editorial, argues for a society-decided proactive policy to prevent disasters or at least minimise their impact, and introduces the papers in the special issue. These include contributions on the methodology of social accounting after a disaster, and the economic costs a disaster can have. The paper also discusses economic modelling of cost concepts, risk management, and stochastic modelling for macro, meso, and micro approaches by leading European and American economists.
Velkoff, VA, Takeuchi, JF, & Johnson, RV (April, 2008). Evaluation of the Census Bureau's vintage 2006 population estimates for counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Paper presented at the Population Association of America 2008 Annual Meeting, New Orleans. Extended abstract available from http://paa2008.princeton.edu/.
This conference paper evaluates the Census Bureau’s 2006 population estimate for the areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, including special processing efforts (eg, supplementing IRS data with NCOA data), and discusses how the additional data improved the population estimates for counties and parishes severely affected by the storms. It also examines the impact that the other components of population change had on the population estimates.
West, CT & Lenze, DG (1994). Modeling the regional impacts of natural disaster and recovery: A general framework and an application to Hurricane Andrew. International Regional Science Review, 17(2), 121–150. Available from http://irx.sagepub.com.
Intense regional impacts and the need to estimate the economic impact of recovery and reconstruction are identified as common features of natural disasters. The problem of estimating impacts is presented conceptually, and assessments of the regional impacts of the disaster are examined using exogenous and endogenous variables. Model linkages are identified and the conceptual problem then applied through a specific model by estimating impacts from available data. The value of secondary data to complement, cross-check, and expand primary data is identified. The paper also discusses how to treat information gaps when analysing data.